as reflected in the Forest Policy 2001. The analysis suggests, that involvement of all the stakeholders in the policy making process, irrespective of their interests, should go a long way to arrest the sharp forest decline in the country. The Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development, and provincial forests departments by bringing into their notice concerns of the timber traders, forest owners and purchasers of rights to policy makers of the country. This consensus building process involves identification of units for land use and finalization of management plans. This participatory and holistic approach is a paradigm shift, which focuses on areas of plantation, has low opportunity cost and higher return and aims at poverty reduction through encouraging enterprise. The activities of the timber Mafia and lack of political will on the part of the government to bring them to book have further aggravated the situation. The government needs to incorporate taxonomy in forest management.
An evidence obtained from Balakot, a sub division of North Western Frontier Province shows that more than 80 of the population is living below the poverty line. In the final analysis the effective enforcement of the existing laws and regulations on forests use and management and involvement of the communities in the policy making process from the very outset enables the government to address and arrest sharp forest decline by creating. Farm Forestry is another approach and it targets the poor and disadvantaged groups through the involvement of local CBOs and NGOs in nwfp. Including women in forest management decisions and forestry projects should address the gender dimensions of deforestation. (2002) "Communities and Forests: Indigenous Capacities and the Rights of the Forest Dependent Communities". This wide gap in the production and consumption of wood is one of the main factors of deforestation. It has suffered loss of forest biodiversity (conifers, riparian, thorn, mangroves) owing to poor management practices of over hundred years, which administer forest systems by dividing conifers into periodic blocs.
Section VI identifies the main areas of further research in the light of the findings of this paper. Improvement of forecasting techniques (for example, projections of rates of deforestation, changes in land use, or estimates of soil erosion over a period of time in the future) can also play a very important role to bridge information gaps in the policy making process. Causes of Deforestation, pakistan is a forest deficient country. The rate of deforestation.5 is very high and alarming. It ensures sustainability by creating skills enhancement and ownership, systematic planning and management of the resources. The natural factors affecting forests supplemental essay study abroad in advantage and disadvantages are arid climate, heavy dependence on irrigation water, long gestation periods of forestry, and fragile watershed rangeland. The forest department has failed to bring them to book and rectify the situation. The integration of ecosystem approach into forest management can prevent further fragmentation of forest habitats. In 1993, the consumption of wood was.5 million cubic meters whereas in the year 2018 it is projected to go up.6 million cubic meters. A paper presented in workshop on underlying causes of deforestation and forests degradation in Pakistan held in Islamabad lead Pakistan.